Crowd Control and Planning

Course Overview

This module consists of a Skills Framework Level 4 Technical Skills and Competency (TSC) unit in Crowd Control and Planning, it is a 16-hour course delivered within a span of 2 days with 14.5 hours of training and 1.5 hours of assessment.

Course Aim

This TSC discusses the ability and knowledge to develop plans and procedures for effective crowd control so as to ensure the proper execution of events, including ensuring that all logistics requirements are carried out according to the event plans; as well as work with other departments and stakeholders to ensure that all operational requirements of the events are fulfilled.

Course Objective

On completion of this unit, participants will have the ability and knowledge to perform Crowd Control and Planning at the workplace.

Instructional Methodology

  • Presentation
  • Discussion
  • Group Activities
  • Case Study


The dynamic and vibrant Meetings, Incentives, Conferences, and Events (MICE) industry has propelled Singapore into one of the top convention destinations globally, and is a significant contributor to the hospitality industry and economy.

Events range widely in scale and complexity, from one-day corporate seminars to public exhibitions and trade fairs that span several days. It could be held in purpose-built multi-functional halls, at open-air arenas or even green spaces outdoors.

Crowds are unavoidable occurrences as a result of holding such events but problems in their safe management are not. This course aims to provide practical guidance to help those organising events to manage crowd safety in a systematic way. It does not seek to specify a particular way of achieving crowd safety, but sets out a general approach towards achieving effective crowd control and planning.

Crowding occurs as a result of an excessively large number of people gathering in a specified area. Large numbers gather routinely in such places as shopping malls, train stations, bus stations etc. However, they also gather, often in greater density, where particular attractions or events are taking place. At such events there may be greater risks to their safety.

Crowd Control and Planning is an integral part of events management. It is essentially a set of collaborative practices between various stakeholders e.g. event planners and managers, emergency services, local authorities, transport authorities, and the crowd itself (Challenger et al 2009).

The terms Crowd Management and Crowd Control are often confused; According to Abbot, "Crowd management and crowd control are two distinct but interrelated concepts. The former includes the facilitation, employment and movement of crowds, while the latter relates to the steps taken once the crowd has lost control. " (Abbot 2000 Pp 1 05)

Crowd management is usually defined as the set of measures taken in the normal process of facilitating the movement and enjoyment of people (Berlonghi 1995), for instance measures to control the distribution of people over a certain area. Crowd management is taken to refer mostly to the preparations for a given event and it involves predicting what is going to happen and preparing for it, i.e. designing for the desired behaviour of the crowd.

The preparations involve all aspects, namely getting people into the site, people participating to the event, and getting people out of the site. These preparations usually start much ahead of the event, the resulting plan or design for a given event concerns the technical infrastructure and operational measures needed for the safety, well-being and enjoyment of the crowd.



Plan and Develop Traffic Control Operational Plans and Procedures

A traffic control operational plans should be developed in cooperation with the appropriate transportation, law enforcement, and public safety agency stakeholders where appropriate. It is the responsibility of the event organiser to assess the potential impact the event will cause on existing traffic and the impact the existing traffic will have on the event, including the entire duration of the event's operations from move-in to moveout, and then identify the stakeholders and strategies necessary to mitigate negative consequences.

Unimpeded access routes should be restricted and protected for emergency vehicles (e.g. police, fire, ambulances, etc.); exclusive and/or priority ingress and egress routes should be planned for busses, shuttle services, service vehicles, and preferential parking services; and in all cases, vehicular and pedestrian traffic should be segregated.

Depending on the scale of the event, hundreds or thousands of vehicles must be accommodated with parking places and spaces, even if for only a short period of time whilst loading or unloading occurs.

Conduct a parking demand analysis to determine the number and types of vehicles expected and the arrival and departure patterns of those vehicles to develop a parking plan that allocates, designates, and segregates parking areas according to zones of need and the capabilities and restraints of the parking options.

Parking will be required, and designated areas should be considered. Lot and space assignment factors may include general public parking (free or paid), reserved/VlP parking, etc.  

Traffic flow should be facilitated by stewarding personnel and barrier equipment. Regulations should be established (or may exist and require compliance) to maintain routes for non-event traffic flow, and safeguard critical event-specific access routes for emergency and essential service vehicles such as ambulances, law enforcement and fire vehicles.

All parking instructions and restrictions should be publicised to event attendees as appropriate according to the level of parking demand, lot designations, and the traffic demand caused by event parking. This may include en-route signage and maps included in registration and promotional materials and on web sites. Pedestrian signage should be provided to guide attendees from the parking area to the event site.

Plan and Develop Vehicle Incidents and Accidents Response Operational Plans and Procedures

When responding to any vehicle incidents or accidents, the following steps are to be taken by the first responder to the situation:

  • Assess the situation
  • Assess the casualty
  • Summon for medical help


This module is part of the WSQ Diploma in Tourism (Event Management & Operations)

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